Upper Limb

Cephalic Vein

Cephalic Vein The structure indicated is the cephalic vein. The cephalic and basilic veins are the main superficial veins of the upper limb. The cephalic vein originates from the dorsal venous network of the hand and drains into the axillary vein by passing through the deltoid and pectoralis major muscles. In the cubital fossa, which is the area located anterior to the elbow joint, the cephalic vein is joined to the basilic vein via the median cubital vein. In the clinical setting, the median cubital vein is a convenient and common location for obtaining venous access for the administration of …

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cephalic vein

Axillary Vein

Axillary Vein The structure indicated is the axillary vein. The axillary vein passes through the axilla, draining blood from the upper limb into the subclavian veins, which in turn drain blood to the brachiocephalic (innominate) veins, which unite to form the superior vena cava which then drains into the right atrium of the heart. The axillary vein is formed from the brachial and the basilic veins, and begins at the inferior margin of the teres major and ends at the lateral border of the first rib, where it then becomes the subclavian vein. Learn more about the veins of the body …

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axillary vein

Abductor Pollicis Longus

Abductor Pollicis Longus The structure indicated is the abductor pollicis longus muscle of the posterior forearm. The abductor pollicis longus muscle is one of the muscles located in the deep layer of muscles in the posterior compartment of the forearm. There are 5 muscles in the deep layer of the posterior forearm: Supinator Abductor pollicis longus Extensor pollicis brevis Extensor pollicis longus Extensor indicis The abductor pollicis longus muscle, as the name suggests abducts the thumb. Origin: Posterior surface of proximal ulna, radius and interosseous membrane Insertion: Base of 1st metacarpal Innervation: Posterior interosseous nerve Action: Abduction and extension of …

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abductor pollicis longus

Anconeus

Anconeus The structure indicated is the anconeus muscle of the forearm. The anconeus muscle is one of the muscles of the posterior compartment of the forearm. The posterior compartment consists of a superficial layer of muscles comprised of 7 muscles. The deep layer is comprised of 5 muscles. Origin: lateral epicondyle of humerus Insertion: olecranon, proximal surface of ulna Innervation: Radial nerve Action: assists elbow extension, stabilises the elbow joint, abducts ulna during pronation Learn about the muscles of the forearm in this tutorial.

anconeus

Brachioradialis

Brachioradialis The structure indicated is the brachioradialis muscle of the forearm. The brachioradalis muscle is one of the muscles of the posterior compartment of the forearm. The posterior compartment consists of a superficial layer of muscles comprised of 7 muscles. The deep layer is comprised of 5 muscles. Origin: lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus Insertion: radial styloid process Innervation: radial nerve Action: flexes the forearm at the elbow – strongest when forearm is midway between pronation and supination. Learn more about the muscles of the forearm in this tutorial.

brachioradialis

Abductor Digiti Minimi

Abductor Digiti Minimi The structure indicated is the abductor digiti minimi muscle of the hand. The abductor digiti minimi muscle is one of the intrinsic muscles of the hand that belongs to the hypothenar group. The hypothenar group of intrinsic hand muscles consist of three muscles: Abductor digiti minimi Opponens digiti minimi Flexor digit minimi brevis All the intrinsic muscles of the hand, except the thenar muscles and the lateral two lumbrical muscles are innervated by the deep branch of the ulnar nerve. The thenar muscles and the lateral two lumbrical muscles are innervated by the median nerve.  A useful …

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Abductor Digiti Minimi

Abductor Pollicis Brevis

Abductor Pollicis Brevis The structure indicated is the abductor pollicis brevis muscle of the hand. The abductor pollicis brevis muscle is one of the intrinsic muscles of the hand that belongs to the thenar group. The thenar group of intrinsic hand muscles consist of three muscles: Abductor pollicis brevis Flexor pollicis brevis Opponens pollicis All the intrinsic muscles of the hand, except the thenar muscles and the lateral two lumbrical muscles are innervated by the deep branch of the ulnar nerve. The thenar muscles and the lateral two lumbrical muscles are innervated by the median nerve.  A useful mnemonic for …

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Abductor Pollicis Brevis