System: Musculoskeletal

Lateral Supracondylar Ridge

Lateral Supracondylar Ridge The distal end of the humerus consists of several features: Condyle, consisting of the capitulum and trochlea Medial and lateral epicondyles Medial and lateral supracondylar ridges Radial fossa, coronoid fossa, olecranon fossa A large central condyle which has two articular components – the capitulum which articulates with the radius, and the trochlea which articulates with the ulna. Either side of the humeral condyle, are two epicondyles, the medial and lateral epicondyles superior to which are the medial and lateral supracondylar ridges. The following muscles attach to the lateral supracondylar ridge: Brachioradialis Extensor carpi radialis longus Triceps brachii …

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Lateral supracondylar ridge

Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus

Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus The muscle indicated is the extensor carpi radialis longus. The extensor carpi radialis longus muscle is one of 7 muscles located in the superficial compartment of the posterior forearm. The posterior forearm consists of a superficial and a deep compartment. The superficial compartment contains 7 muscles, whereas the deep compartment contains 5 muscles. The superficial compartment of the posterior forearm includes the following 7 muscles: Brachioradialis Extensor carpi radialis longus Extensor carpi radialis brevis Extensor digitorum Extensor digiti minimi Extensor carpi ulnaris Anconeus The muscles of the posterior compartment of the forearm originate from the lateral epicondyle of the humerus and the supraepicondylar ridge and they are all …

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extensor carpi radalis longus

Patella (Knee cap)

Patella (Knee cap) The structure indicated is the patella bone. The patella (knee cap) is a triangular shaped bone that is encapsulated within the quadriceps femoris tendon and is the largest sesamoid bone in the human body. It is located anteriorly to the knee joint and attaches via its inferiorly directed apex to the proximal tibia by the patellar ligament. The base of the patella provides a broad surface for the attachment of the quadriceps femoris muscles. The patella functions to transmit the forces from the powerful thigh muscles to the leg and is particular important in knee extension. Learn …

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Patella (knee cap)

Biceps Brachii – Short Head

Biceps Brachii – Short Head The structure indicated is the short head of the biceps brachii muscle. The biceps muscle is one of three muscles in the anterior compartment of the arm: Biceps brachii Brachialis Coracobrachialis The muscles of the anterior compartment are innervated by the musculocutaneous nerve and generally serve to flex the forearm at the elbow joint. The biceps brachii muscle is comprised of two muscular heads: Short head Long head The short head of the biceps brachii attaches to the coracoid process of the scapula. There are three muscles which attach to the coracoid process: Short head …

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Biceps brachii short head

Neck of Femur

Neck of Femur The structure indicated is the neck of the femur. The proximal femur consists of the following key features: Head of femur: articulates with acetabulum. Facet for attachment of ligament of head. Neck of femur: connects head to shaft Greater trochanter: site of attachment for several muscles, including gluteus minimus and medius Lesser trochanter: iliacus and psoas insert Trochanteric fossa Intertrochanteric line Intertrochanteric crest Quadrate tubercle Fractures of the neck of femur are very common injuries which mainly occur in elderly females with osteoporotic bones. The classical clinical finding is that of an externally rotated shortened leg. A …

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Neck of femur

Scaphoid Bone

Scaphoid Bone The structure indicated is the scaphoid bone. There are three groups of bones in the hand: Carpal bones (8 in total) Metacarpal bones Phalanges The carpal bones are separated into two rows: Proximal row Distal row The scaphoid bone is one of four bones in the proximal row of carpals (scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, pisiform). The lunate bone is located centrally in the wrist between the scaphoid and triquetral bones. It gets its name from its crescent shape (lunar = relating to the moon). It has the following articulations: Proximal: Radius Distal: trapezoid and trapezium Medial: capitate and lunate …

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Scaphoid Bone

Head of Radius

Head of Radius The structure indicated is the head of the radius. The proximal end of the radius consists of the following features Head Neck Radial tuberosity The head of the radius articulates with the capitulum of the humerus (humeroradial joint) which is one of three articulations at the elbow joint. The other two articulations at the elbow joint are the articulations between the trochlea notch of the ulna and the trochlea of the humerus, and the joint between the radial head and the radial notch of the ulna – the proximal radio-ulnar joint. The radial head is encapsulated by …

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Head of Radius

Capitulum of Humerus

Capitulum of Humerus The structure indicated is the capitulum of the distal humerus. The distal end of the humerus consists of several features: Condyle, consisting of the capitulum and trochlea Medial and lateral epicondyles Medial and lateral supracondylar ridges Radial fossa, coronoid fossa, olecranon fossa A large central condyle which has two articular components – the capitulum which articulates with the head of the radius, and the trochlea which articulates with the ulna. Either side of the humeral condyle, are two epicondyles, the medial and lateral epicondyles superior to which are the medial and lateral supracondylar ridges. Learn more about …

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Capitulum of humerus

Lunate Bone

Lunate The structure indicated is the lunate bone of the hand. There are three groups of bones in the hand: Carpal bones (8 in total) Metacarpal bones Phalanges The carpal bones are separated into two rows: Proximal row Distal row The lunate bone is one of four bones in the proximal row of carpals (scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, pisiform). The lunate bone is located centrally in the wrist between the scaphoid and triquetral bones. It gets its name from its crescent shape (lunar = relating to the moon). It has the following articulations: Proximal: Radius Distal: capitate and hamate Lateral: scaphoid …

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Lunate bone

Supraspinatus

Supraspinatus The structure indicated is the supraspinatus muscle. The supraspinatus muscle is one of the four muscles of the rotator cuff. The rotator cuff muscles are located in the posterior scapula region and serve to stabilise the glenohumeral joint. There are 4 rotator cuff muscles which can be remembered using the mnemonic SITS: Supraspinatus Infraspinatus Teres minor Subscapularis The supraspinatus and infraspinatus, as their names suggest originate in the fossae above and below the spine of the scapula respectively (supraspinatous and infraspinatous fossae). The supraspinatus, infraspinatus and teres minor muscles insert on to the greater tubercle of the humerus on …

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supraspinatus