Abdomen

Left Gastric Artery

Left Gastric Artery The structure indicated is the left gastric artery. The left gastric artery is one of three branches of the celiac trunk. The celiac trunk is the first anterior branch that arises from the abdominal aorta. The abdominal aorta consists of anterior, posterior, and lateral branches. There are three anterior branches which supply the foregut, midgut and hindgut structures these are as follows: Celiac trunk – supplies foregut Superior mesenteric artery – supplies midgut Inferior mesenteric artery – supplies hindgut The celiac trunk arises from the abdominal aorta at the level of the upper part of the first …

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left gastric artery

Quadratus Lumborum

Quadratus Lumborum The structure indicated is the quadratus lumborum muscle. The quadratus lumborum muscle is one of the muscles which makes up the posterior abdominal wall. There are four muscles which contribute to the posterior abdominal wall: Psoas major Psoas minor Quadratus lumborum Iliacus Origin: Transverse process of L5, iliolumbar ligament, iliac crest. Insertion: Transverse processes of L1-L4, inferior border of 12th rib Action: Depresses and stabilises 12th rib. Weak lateral flexion of trunk Innervation: Anterior rami of T12-L4 Learn more about the muscles of the posterior abdominal wall in this tutorial

quadratus lumborum

Left Gonadal Vein

Left Gonadal Vein The structure indicated is the left gonadal vein. The gonadal veins are the veins which drain the testes in men (testicular vein) and the ovaries (ovarian vein) in women.  The left gonadal vein drains into the left renal vein, which then drains into the inferior vena cava. The right gonadal vein however, drains directly into the inferior vena cava. The inferior vena cava is responsible for carrying deoxygenated blood into the right atrium of the heart from the lower part of the body. The inferior vena cava is formed at the point of union of the right …

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left gonadal vein

Lumbar Veins

Lumbar Veins The lumbar veins are illustrated in this diagram. The lumbar veins run along the posterior abdominal wall and drain into the inferior vena cava. In addition some lumbar veins drain into the iliolumbar vein, and into ascending lumbar veins. There are several veins which drain into the inferior vena cava. The inferior cava is formed from the union of the common iliac veins, which receive blood from the pelvis and lower limbs. Draining directly into the inferior vena cava, are the following veins: Lumbar veins Right gonadal veins (ovarian/testicular) Renal veins Right suprarenal vein Inferior phrenic veins Hepatic …

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Lumbar veins

Renal Artery

Renal Artery The structure indicated is the right renal artery. The renal arteries are lateral branches of the abdominal aorta which arise at the level of the intervertebral disc between L1 and L2, just below the origin of the superior mesenteric arteries. There is one renal artery that supplies each kidney. The right renal artery tends to originate slightly lower than the left renal artery, and it passes behind the inferior vena cava to supply the right kidney. The renal arteries then divide into a few anterior and posterior branches at the hilum. The renal arteries can become narrowed, or …

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Right renal artery

Median Sacral Artery

Median Sacral Artery The structure indicated is the median sacral artery. The median sacral artery arises just above the bifurcation of the aorta into the common iliac arteries. The abdominal aorta gives off anterior, posterior and lateral branches. The anterior branches include: Celiac trunk Superior mesenteric artery Gonadal arteries Inferior mesenteric arteries Lateral branches: Middle suprarenal arteries Renal arteries Posterior branches: Inferior phrenic arteries Lumbar arteries Median sacral arteries The median sacral artery supplies the coccyx, the lumbar vertebrae and the sacrum.

medial sacral artery

Splenic Artery

Splenic Artery The structure indicated is the splenic artery. The splenic artery is one of three branches of the celiac trunk, which is the first anterior branch that arises from the abdominal aorta. The abdominal aorta consists of anterior, posterior, and lateral branches. There are three anterior branches which supply the foregut, midgut and hindgut structures these are as follows: Celiac trunk – supplies foregut Superior mesenteric artery – supplies midgut Inferior mesenteric artery – supplies hindgut The celiac trunk arises from the abdominal aorta at the level of the upper part of the first lumbar vertebra. It gives rises …

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splenic artery

Common Hepatic Artery

Common Hepatic Artery The structure indicated is the common hepatic artery. The common hepatic artery is one of three branches of the celiac trunk and is the first anterior branch that arises from the abdominal aorta. The abdominal aorta consists of anterior, posterior, and lateral branches. There are three anterior branches which supply the foregut, midgut and hindgut structures these are as follows: Celiac trunk – supplies foregut Superior mesenteric artery – supplies midgut Inferior mesenteric artery – supplies hindgut The celiac trunk arises from the abdominal aorta at the level of the upper part of the first lumbar vertebra. …

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common hepatic artery

Psoas Major

Psoas Major The structure indicated is the psoas major muscle The psoas major muscle is one of the muscles which makes up the posterior abdominal wall. There are four muscles which contribute to the posterior abdominal wall: Psoas major Psoas minor Quadratus lumborum Iliacus The iliacus muscle combines with the psoas major muscle to enter the anterior compartment of the thigh and insert via a common tendon on the lesser trochanter of the femur. The iliacus and the psoas major muscles are thus collectively referred to as the iliopsoas muscle – they act synergistically to flex the thigh at the …

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psoas major

Inferior Vena Cava

Inferior Vena Cava The structure indicated is the inferior vena cava. The inferior vena cava is responsible for carrying deoxygenated blood into the right atrium of the heart from the lower part of the body. The inferior vena cava is formed at the point of union of the right and left common iliac veins at the L5 vertebral level. Several veins drain into the inferior vena cava: Lumbar veins Right gonadal vein (the left gonadal vein drains into the left renal vein) Renal veins Right suprarenal vein Inferior phrenic vein Hepatic veins The inferior vena cava ascends through the abdomen …

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Inferior vena cava