Region: Abdomen

Renal Artery

Renal Artery The structure indicated is the right renal artery. The renal arteries are lateral branches of the abdominal aorta which arise at the level of the intervertebral disc between L1 and L2, just below the origin of the superior mesenteric arteries. There is one renal artery that supplies each kidney. The right renal artery tends to originate slightly lower than the left renal artery, and it passes behind the inferior vena cava to supply the right kidney. The renal arteries then divide into a few anterior and posterior branches at the hilum. The renal arteries can become narrowed, or …

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Right renal artery

Median Sacral Artery

Median Sacral Artery The structure indicated is the median sacral artery. The median sacral artery arises just above the bifurcation of the aorta into the common iliac arteries. The abdominal aorta gives off anterior, posterior and lateral branches. The anterior branches include: Celiac trunk Superior mesenteric artery Gonadal arteries Inferior mesenteric arteries Lateral branches: Middle suprarenal arteries Renal arteries Posterior branches: Inferior phrenic arteries Lumbar arteries Median sacral arteries The median sacral artery supplies the coccyx, the lumbar vertebrae and the sacrum.

medial sacral artery

Splenic Artery

Splenic Artery The structure indicated is the splenic artery. The splenic artery is one of three branches of the celiac trunk, which is the first anterior branch that arises from the abdominal aorta. The abdominal aorta consists of anterior, posterior, and lateral branches. There are three anterior branches which supply the foregut, midgut and hindgut structures these are as follows: Celiac trunk – supplies foregut Superior mesenteric artery – supplies midgut Inferior mesenteric artery – supplies hindgut The celiac trunk arises from the abdominal aorta at the level of the upper part of the first lumbar vertebra. It gives rises …

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splenic artery

Common Hepatic Artery

Common Hepatic Artery The structure indicated is the common hepatic artery. The common hepatic artery is one of three branches of the celiac trunk and is the first anterior branch that arises from the abdominal aorta. The abdominal aorta consists of anterior, posterior, and lateral branches. There are three anterior branches which supply the foregut, midgut and hindgut structures these are as follows: Celiac trunk – supplies foregut Superior mesenteric artery – supplies midgut Inferior mesenteric artery – supplies hindgut The celiac trunk arises from the abdominal aorta at the level of the upper part of the first lumbar vertebra. …

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common hepatic artery

Psoas Major

Psoas Major The structure indicated is the psoas major muscle The psoas major muscle is one of the muscles which makes up the posterior abdominal wall. There are four muscles which contribute to the posterior abdominal wall: Psoas major Psoas minor Quadratus lumborum Iliacus The iliacus muscle combines with the psoas major muscle to enter the anterior compartment of the thigh and insert via a common tendon on the lesser trochanter of the femur. The iliacus and the psoas major muscles are thus collectively referred to as the iliopsoas muscle – they act synergistically to flex the thigh at the …

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psoas major

Inferior Vena Cava

Inferior Vena Cava The structure indicated is the inferior vena cava. The inferior vena cava is responsible for carrying deoxygenated blood into the right atrium of the heart from the lower part of the body. The inferior vena cava is formed at the point of union of the right and left common iliac veins at the L5 vertebral level. Several veins drain into the inferior vena cava: Lumbar veins Right gonadal vein (the left gonadal vein drains into the left renal vein) Renal veins Right suprarenal vein Inferior phrenic vein Hepatic veins The inferior vena cava ascends through the abdomen …

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Inferior vena cava

Myenteric Plexus

Myenteric Plexus The myenteric plexus, also known as Auerbach’s plexus, together with Meissner’s plexus (submucosal plexus) forms the enteric nervous system which regulates the function of the gastrointestinal system. The myenteric plexus is located between the inner and outer muscle layers of the muscularis externa. The submucosal plexus (Meissner’s plexus), on the other hand, is located in the submucosa. This diagram illustrates the four layers of the gastrointestinal tract: Mucosa – consists of 3 layers Epithelium Lamina Propria Muscularis Mucosae Submucosa – connective tissue, submucosal plexus and blood vessels/lymphatics Muscularis Externa – 3 muscle layers in the stomach, 2 in …

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Myenteric Plexus

Splenic Artery

Splenic Artery The structure indicated is the splenic artery. The splenic artery the largest of three arteries arising for the celiac trunk: Left gastric artery Common hepatic Splenic artery The celiac artery is responsible for supplying the foregut structures, arising from the abdominal aorta just below the point at which it emerges through the aortic hiatus, at the level of vertebra L1. The splenic artery takes a tortuous course along the superior aspect of the pancreas to enter the hilum of the spleen. Along its course, it gives off several branches supplying the neck, body and tail of the pancreas. …

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Splenic Artery

Minor Calyx of Kidney

Minor Calyx of Kidney The structure indicated is the minor calyx of the kidney. The kidney consists of an outer cortex and an inner medulla. The cortex projects into the kidney dividing the medulla into triangular shaped renal pyramids, whose apices are surrounded by a minor calyx (calices = plural). The minor calices join to form a major calyx, which in turn unite to form the renal pelvis which exit the kidney to form the ureters. The calyx system of the kidney serves to drain urine. The smooth muscle walls of the calices are capable of peristalsis, which helps to …

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Minor Calyx

Pancreatic Duct

Pancreatic Duct The structure indicated is the pancreatic duct (duct of Wirsung) of the pancreas. The pancreas is an organ which lies posteriorly to the stomach and extends from the duodenum to the spleen. The pancreatic duct extends from the tail of the pancreas through the body of the pancreas into the head of the pancreas where it joins the common bile duct to form the hepatopancreatic ampulla, also known as the ampulla of Vater, which empties into the descending duodenum at the major duodenal papilla. In addition to the main pancreatic duct, there is also an accessory pancreatic duct …

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Pancreatic Duct