Upper Limb

Pisiform Bone

Pisiform Bone The structure indicated is the pisiform bone of the hand. There are three groups of bones in the hand: Carpal bones (8 in total) Metacarpal bones Phalanges The carpal bones are separated into two rows: Proximal row Distal row The pisiform bone is one of four bones in the proximal row of carpals (scaphoid, lunate, triquetral, pisiform). The pisiform bone is a tiny sesamoid bone located in the tendon of the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle. It articulates with the palmar surface of the triquetral bone. Learn more about the anatomy of the bones of the hand in this …

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Pisiform bone

Adductor Pollicis

Adductor Pollicis The structure indicated is the adductor pollicis muscle of the hand. The adductor pollicis muscle belong to the intrinsic group of muscles which act on the hand. The intrinsic muscles include the following muscles/groups: Thenar group (act on thumb) Hypothenar group (act on little finger) Adductor pollicis Lumbricals Interossesus muscles (palmar and dorsal interossei) Palmaris brevis All the intrinsic muscles of the hand, except the thenar muscles and the lateral two lumbrical muscles are innervated by the deep branch of the ulnar nerve. The thenar muscles and the lateral two lumbrical muscles are innervated by the median nerve.  …

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adductor pollicis

First Metacarpal

First Metacarpal The structure indicated is the first metacarpal of the hand. There are three groups of bones in the hand: Carpal bones (8 in total) Metacarpal bones Phalanges The carpal bones are separated into two rows: Proximal row Distal row There are 5 metacarpal bones numbered 1 to 5 and are located between the carpal bones and the phalanges. The first metacarpal bone is associated with the thumb, the 5th metacarpal bone is associated with the little finger. The joints between the carpals and the metacarpals are known as carpometacarpal joints. The joints between the metacarpals and the proximal …

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first metacarpal

Flexor Pollicis Brevis

Flexor Pollicis Brevis The structure indicated is the flexor pollicis brevis muscle of the hand. The flexor pollicis brevis muscle is one of the intrinsic muscles of the hand that belongs to the thenar group. The thenar group of intrinsic hand muscles consist of three muscles: Abductor pollicis brevis Flexor pollicis brevis Opponens pollicis All the intrinsic muscles of the hand, except the thenar muscles and the lateral two lumbrical muscles are innervated by the deep branch of the ulnar nerve. The thenar muscles and the lateral two lumbrical muscles are innervated by the median nerve.  A useful mnemonic for …

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flexor pollicis brevis

First Lumbrical

First Lumbrical The structure indicated is the first lumbrical muscle of the hand. The lumbricals belong to the intrinsic group of muscles which act on the hand. The intrinsic muscles include the following muscles/groups: Thenar group (act on thumb) Hypothenar group (act on little finger) Adductor pollicis Lumbricals Interossesus muscles Palmaris brevis All the intrinsic muscles of the hand, except the thenar muscles and the lateral two lumbrical muscles are innervated by the deep branch of the ulnar nerve. The thenar muscles and the lateral two lumbrical muscles are innervated by the median nerve.  A useful mnemonic for remembering this …

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first lumbrical

Triquetral Bone

Triquetral Bone The structure indicated is the triquetral bone of the hand. There are three groups of bones in the hand: Carpal bones (8 in total) Metacarpal bones Phalanges The carpal bones are separated into two rows: Proximal row Distal row The triquetral bone is one of four bones in the proximal row of carpals (scaphoid, lunate, triquetral, pisiform). The triquetral bone is located medially in the hand and articulates with the pisiform bone, the hamate and lunate bones. On the medial aspect of the volar surface of the triquetral bone is a facet for articulation with the small pisiform …

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triquetral bone

Trapezoid Bone

Trapezoid Bone The structure indicated is the trapezoid bone of the hand. There are three groups of bones in the hand: Carpal bones (8 in total) Metacarpal bones Phalanges The carpal bones are separated into two rows: Proximal row Distal row The trapezoid bone is located in the distal row of carpal bones. There are four bones in the distal row: Trapezium Trapezoid Capitate Hamate It’s easy to confuse the location of the trapezoid with the adjacent and similarly named trapezium bone. A way to remember where the trapezium is located is that trapezi-UM rhymes with thUMB, and therefore articulates …

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trapezoid bone

Opponens Digiti Minimi

Opponens Digiti Minimi The structure indicated is the opponens digiti minimi muscle. The opponens digiti minimi muscle is one of the intrinsic muscles of the hand that belongs to the hypothenar group. The hypothenar group of intrinsic hand muscles consist of three muscles: Abductor digiti minimi Opponens digiti minimi Flexor digit minimi brevis All the intrinsic muscles of the hand, except the thenar muscles and the lateral two lumbrical muscles are innervated by the deep branch of the ulnar nerve. The thenar muscles and the lateral two lumbrical muscles are innervated by the median nerve.  A useful mnemonic for remembering …

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opponens digiti minimi

Extensor Pollicis Longus

Extensor Pollicis Longus The structure indicated is the extensor pollicis longus muscle of the posterior forearm. The extensor pollicis longus muscle is one of the muscles located in the deep layer of muscles in the posterior compartment of the forearm. There are 5 muscles in the deep layer of the posterior forearm: Supinator Abductor pollicis longus Extensor pollicis brevis Extensor pollicis longus Extensor indicis The tendon of the extensor pollicis longus forms the medial border of the anatomical snuffbox. The anatomical snuff box is an anatomical triangle located on the dorsal surface of the hand, it consists of the following …

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extensor pollicis longus

Coracoclavicular Ligament

Coracoclavicular Ligament The structure indicated is the coracoclavicular ligament The coracoclavicular ligament is one of the ligaments which stabilises the acromioclavicular joint. The acromioclavicular joint is formed between the acromion of the scapula and the clavicle. It is a small synovial joint that is stabilised by the following ligaments: Acromioclavicular ligament (consists of superior and inferior parts) Coracoclavicular ligaments The coracoclavicular ligaments consist of two parts: Trapezoid ligament Conoid ligament The coracoclavicular ligament, as the name suggests connects the clavicle to the coracoid process of the scapula. Learn more about the anatomy of the shoulder joint in this tutorial.

coracoclavicular ligament