Joints

Acromioclavicular Joint

Acromioclavicular Joint The structure indicated is the acromioclavicular joint. The shoulder joint complex consists of the three joints: Glenohumeral joint Acromioclavicular joint Sternoclavicular joint The acromioclavicular joint is formed between the acromion of the scapula and the clavicle. It is a small synovial joint that is stabilised by the following ligaments: Acromioclavicular ligament (consists of superior and inferior parts) Coracoclavicular ligaments The coracoclavicular ligaments consist of two parts: Trapezoid ligament Conoid ligament Learn more about the shoulder joint in this anatomy tutorial.
acromioclavicular joint

Trochlea of Humerus

Trochlea of Humerus The structure indicated is the trochlea of the humerus. The distal end of the humerus consists of several features: Condyle, consisting of the capitulum and trochlea Medial and lateral epicondyles Medial and lateral supracondylar ridges Radial fossa, coronoid fossa, olecranon fossa A large central condyle which has two articular components – the capitulum is the lateral articular component and articulates with the radius, and the trochlea is the medial component which articulates with the ulna. Learn more about the anatomy of the elbow joint in this tutorial.
Trochlea

Patella (Knee cap)

Patella (Knee cap) The structure indicated is the patella bone. The patella (knee cap) is a triangular shaped bone that is encapsulated within the quadriceps femoris tendon and is the largest sesamoid bone in the human body. It is located anteriorly to the knee joint and attaches via its inferiorly directed apex to the proximal tibia by the patellar ligament. The base of the patella provides a broad surface for the attachment of the quadriceps femoris muscles. The patella functions to transmit the forces from the powerful thigh muscles to the leg and is particular important in knee extension. Learn …

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Patella (knee cap)

Neck of Femur

Neck of Femur The structure indicated is the neck of the femur. The proximal femur consists of the following key features: Head of femur: articulates with acetabulum. Facet for attachment of ligament of head. Neck of femur: connects head to shaft Greater trochanter: site of attachment for several muscles, including gluteus minimus and medius Lesser trochanter: iliacus and psoas insert Trochanteric fossa Intertrochanteric line Intertrochanteric crest Quadrate tubercle Fractures of the neck of femur are very common injuries which mainly occur in elderly females with osteoporotic bones. The classical clinical finding is that of an externally rotated shortened leg. A …

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Neck of femur

Acetabulum

Acetabulum The structure indicated is the acetabulum of the pelvis. The acetabulum is formed from the point joining the three bones of the pelvis (ilium, ischium and pubis), and is the site of articulation with the head of the femur. The femoroacetabular articulation is known as the hip joint. The acetabulum consists of two parts: Articular part Non-articular part The non-articular part consists of the acetabular fossa and the acetabular notch inferiorly. The ligamentum teres attaches at one end to the acetabular notch, and at the other end to the fovea capitis of the femur. The articular part forms a …

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Acetabulum

Sternal Angle

Sternal Angle The diagram indicates the sternal angle of Louis. The sternal angle is the angle formed between the manubrium of the sternum and the body of the sternum (manubriosternal junction), and is an important anatomical landmark. It marks the level of the 2nd pair of costal cartilages which lies at the level of the intervertebral disc between thoracic vertebrae 4 and 5. This level represents several important anatomical features: Beginning and end of the aortic arch Bifurcation of the trachea Bifurcation of the pulmonary trunk Left recurrent laryngeal loops under arch of aorta Ligamentum arteriosum lies at this level …

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sternal angle

Radial Collateral Ligament of Elbow

Radial Collateral Ligament of Elbow The structure indicated is the radial collateral ligament of the elbow. The fibrous joint capsule which surrounds the elbow joint is reinforced medially and laterally, where it thickens to form the collateral ligaments – the radial collateral ligament and the ulnar collateral ligament. Surrounding the radial head is the annular ligament, the fibres of which blend with the fibres of the radial collateral ligament. Because of the way the joint capsule is thickened to form ligaments with blended fibres, the elbow ligaments on the lateral aspect of the elbow are often referred to collectively as …

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Radial Collateral Ligament of Elbow

Temporomandibular Joint

Temporomandibular Joint The structure indicated is the temporomandibular joint. The temporomandibular joint is commonly referred to as the TMJ and is a synovial joint formed between the condyles of the mandible and the articular fossa and articular tubercle of the temporal bones of the skull. The articular surfaces of the temporomandibular joint are covered with fibrocartilage, and the joint is divided into two parts by the presence of a fibrous articular disc: The inferior part of the TMJ allows depression and elevation. The superior part of the TMJ allows protrusion and retraction. Temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMJD) is an umbrella term which …

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Temporomandibular Joint

Prepatellar Bursa

Prepatellar Bursa The structure indicated is the prepatellar bursa of the knee joint. The synovial membrane of the knee joint forms bursae to protect the structures of the knee joint and to provide low friction surfaces to allow tendons and structures of the knee joint to glide smoothly over one another. In addition there are several other bursae which do not communicate with the joint cavity, located in and around the knee joint. The prepatellar bursa is found anteriorly, and as the name suggests, in front of the patella. There are several other bursae located laterally and medially. Anterior bursae: Suprapatellar …

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Prepatellar Bursa

Lambdoid Suture

Lambdoid Suture The structure indicated is the lambdoid suture. Sutures are junctions between the bones of the skull – they are a type of fibrous joint, bound together by Sharpey’s fibres. Fibrous joints are fixed, immobile joints, with no joint cavity, and connected by fibrous connective tissue. There are three types of fibrous joint. 1)      Suture (joints between skull bones) 2)      Syndesmosis (joints between long bones of forearm and leg) 3)      Gomphosis (joints between roots of a tooth and socket in jaw) The lambdoid suture joins the parietal bones with the occipital bone, and is continuous with the occiptomastoid suture. …

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lambdoid suture