Face

Lateral Pterygoid

Lateral Pterygoid The structure indicated is the lateral pterygoid muscle. The lateral pterygoid muscle is one of four muscles of mastication: Masseter Temporalis Medial pterygoid Lateral pterygoid The muscles of mastication act on the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), which is the joint of the jaw formed between the mandible and temporal bone. The TMJ is a synovial joint, which differs in structure to other synovial joints in that it contains a fibrocartilagenous articular disc that divides the joint into two parts. The two joint compartments result in different movements at the TMJ. The lower joint compartment allows rotational movement, whilst the …

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lateral pterygoid

Facial Artery

Facial Artery The structure indicated is the facial artery. The facial artery is a branch of the external carotid artery. The external carotid artery gives rise to 8 branches: Superior thyroid artery Ascending pharyngeal artery Lingual artery Facial artery Occipital artery Posterior auricular artery Maxillary artery Superficial temporal artery The maxillary artery and the superficial temporal artery are terminal branches of the external carotid artery, with the latter being the smaller of the two branches. The facial artery provides the major arterial supply to the face, terminating as the angular artery medially at the corner of the eye. It consists …

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facial artery

Temporalis Muscle

Temporalis Muscle The structure indicated is the temporalis muscle. This muscle is one of the muscles of mastication. The muscles of mastication include: Masseter Temporalis Medial pterygoid Lateral pterygoid The temporalis muscle is a large fan-shaped muscle which lies in the temporal fossa above the zygomatic arch. Origin: temporal line of parietal bone. Temporal surface of sphenoid bone Insertion: coronoid process of mandible and ramus of mandible Innervation: mandibular branch of trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V) Action: Elevation of the mandible and retraction of the mandible (via posterior horizontal fibres) To learn more about the muscles of mastication, check out …

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temporalis

Orbicularis Oculi

Orbicularis Oculi The structure indicated is the orbicularis oculi muscle of the face. The orbicularis oculi muscle is one of the muscles of facial expression belonging to the orbital group. The muscles of facial expression can be organised into functional groups to provide a more structured approach to understanding the muscles. The functional groups include the following: Orbital group Nasal group Oral group Other The orbicularis oculi muscle is the principle muscle of the orbital group of facial muscles and consists itself of two parts: Palpebral part Orbital part There is an additional muscle in the orbital group – the …

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Orbicularis Oculi

Levator Palpebrae Superioris

Levator Palpebrae Superioris The structure indicated is the levator palpebrae superioris muscle. The levator palpebrae superioris muscle is located in the upper eyelid and is responsible for raising the eyelid. Just like the rectus muscles, and oblique muscles of the eyeball, the levator palpebrae superioris muscle is innervated by the oculomotor nerve (cranial nerve III). The eyelids themselves are supported by the tarsus – in the upper eyelid the superior tarsus, and in the lower eyelid, the inferior tarsus. These structures consist of dense connective tissue. Origin: Roof of the orbit on sphenoid bone, above the optic foramen Insertion: Anterior …

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levator palpebrae superioris

Genioglossus

Genioglossus The structure indicated is the genioglossus muscle of the tongue. The genioglossus muscle is one of the extrinsic muscles of the tongue. The muscles involved with the tongue consist of intrinsic muscles which lie within the tongue itself, and the extrinsic muscles which attach to the tongue and are responsible for depression, elevation, protraction and retraction of the tongue. There are four sets of extrinsic tongue muscles: Genioglossus Hyoglossus Palatoglossus Styloglossus The genioglossus is a large muscle which extends anteriorly from the chin, to the tongue. The genioglossus is involved in depression and protrusion of the tongue. Origin: Superior …

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Genioglossus

Submandibular Gland

Submandibular Gland The structure indicated is the submandibular gland. There are three main large sets of salivary glands in the face: Parotid glands Submandibular glands Sublingual glands The submandibular glands are hook shaped and consist of a deep part and a superficial part, separated by the mylohyoid muscle. The deep part of the submandibular gland is formed from the shorter arm of the hook, which loops posteriorly around the mylohyoid muscle to enter the floor of the oral cavity. The superficial part of the submandibular gland is formed from the longer arm of the hook and lies outside the oral …

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Submandibular Gland

Soft Palate

Soft Palate The structure indicated is the soft palate. The hard and soft palates form the roof of the oral cavity. The oral cavity opens anteriorly on the face via the oral fissure. Posteriorly the oral cavity opens into the oropharynx via oropharyngeal isthmus. The floor is formed mainly of the tongue and surrounding soft tissue. Laterally, the oral cavity is bounded by the muscular cheeks. The hard palate forms the anterior portion of the roof of the oral cavity and consists of a plate of bone (from the maxilla and palatine bones) covered in mucosa. Posteriorly, the soft palate …

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Soft Palate