Bones

Mandibular Notch

Mandibular Notch The structure indicated is the mandibular notch. The ramus of the mandible forms the lateral portion of the mandible. It has two processes: Coronoid process Condyloid process These processes extend superiorly from the ramus of the mandible. The coronoid process is located anteriorly, and the condyloid process is located posteriorly. In between these two processes is a concave notch, known as the mandibular notch. Passing through this notch are the following structures: Masseteric nerve Masseteric artery Masseteric vein Learn more about the anatomy of the mandible in this tutorial.

Mandibular Notch

Pterion

Pterion The structure indicated is known as pterion. Pterion is the name given to the region on the lateral aspect of the skull where four bones are joined: Parietal bone Squamous part of temporal bone Front bone Greater wing of sphenoid bone Pterion is a point of clinical significance – the skull is very thin at this point. In addition to being structurally weak due to being the point of union between several bones, it also lies over the anterior division of the middle meningeal artery. Fracture of the skull at this point can therefore disrupt the middle meningeal artery, …

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Pterion

Head of Fibula

Head of Fibula The structure indicated is the head of the fibula. The two bones of the leg are the tibia and the fibula. The fibula is the smaller of the two bones and lies laterally. The head of the fibula is an expansion of the fibula at the proximal end, and is flattened superiorly and medially forming a surface for articulation with the lateral condyle of the tibia. The head of the fibula provides the point of attachment for several muscles and ligaments, including the biceps femoris and the lateral collateral ligament (fibular collateral ligament). Just below the head …

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Head of Fibula

Infraspinous Fossa

Infraspinous Fossa The structure indicated is the infraspinous fossa of the scapula. It is called the infraspinous fossa because it lies below (infra) the spine of the scapula (-spinous). Accordingly, the fossa that lies superior to the spine of the scapula is the supraspinous fossa. The scapula consists of two surfaces – the costal surface and the posterior surface. The infraspinous fossa is significantly larger than the supraspinous fossa and comprises the majority of the posterior surface of the scapula. The infraspinatus muscle, one of the rotator cuff muscles, originates in the infraspinous fossa. Learn all about the anatomy of …

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Infraspinous Fossa

Calcaneus

Calcaneus The structure indicated is the calcaneus bone of the foot. The foot contains three groups of bones: Tarsals Metatarsals Phalanges The calcaneus is one of seven tarsal bones. There are three groups of tarsal bones: Proximal group Intermediate group Distal group There are two bones in the proximal group of tarsal bones: the talus and the calcaneus. The calcaneus is the largest tarsal bone and forms the heel through its posterior projection. Anteriorly, the calcaneus articulates with the cuboid bone, and superiorly it articulates with talus. Three muscles insert onto the calcaneus: Gastrocnemius Soleus Plantaris Learn more about the …

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Calcaneus

Stapes (ossicle of ear)

Stapes (ossicle of ear) The ossicles of the ear are tiny little bones that are located in the middle ear. They are the smallest bone in the human body (the word itself actually means “little bone”) and their purpose is to transmit sound vibrations from the eardrum (tympanic membrane), to the complex inner ear structures, ultimately leading to the perception of sound. There are a series of three ossicles in the ear: malleus incus stapes. The malleus is attached to the tympanic membrane and articulates with the incus, which in turn articulates with the stapes. The stapes, attaches to the …

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Stapes

Median Sacral Crest

Median Sacral Crest The structure indicated is the median sacral crest. The median sacral crest is located on the dorsal surface of the sacrum. The median sacral crest possesses three to four tubercles which are essentially the equivalent of the spinous processes of the upper sacral vertebrae. Either side of the median sacral crest on the dorsal surface of the sacrum, are the posterior sacral foramina (four pairs). Inferiorly, the sacrum forms two horns, or cornua, which articulate with the cornua of the coccyx. To learn more about the anatomy of the bones of the pelvis watch this video.

Median Sacral Crest

Capitate Bone

Capitate Bone The structure highlighted is the capitate bone of the hand. There are three groups of bones in the hand: Carpal bones (8 in total) Metacarpal bones Phalanges The carpal bones are separated into two rows: Proximal row Distal row The capitate bone is located in the distal row of carpal bones. It is the largest of the carpal bones and is located centrally in the wrist. The capitate bone has a “head” which articulates with the scaphoid and lunate bones of the proximal row. Laterally, on the radial side is the trapezoid bone, on medially, on the ulnar side …

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Capitate Bone

Navicular Bone

Navicular Bone The structure highlighted is the navicular bone of the foot. The foot contains three groups of bones: Tarsals Metatarsals Phalanges The navicular is one of seven tarsal bones. There are three groups of tarsal bones: Proximal group Intermediate group Distal group The navicular bone is the only bone in the intermediate group and is located medially in the foot. Posteriorly, the navicular articulates with the talus. Anteriorly, the navicular articulates with the cuneiform bones and laterally it articulates with the cuboid bone. There is only one muscle which attaches to the navicular bone: the tibialis posterior. It attaches onto the tuberosity …

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Navicular

Superior Pubic Ramus

Superior Pubic Ramus The structure indicated is the superior pubic ramus. The pelvic bone consists of three components: Ilium Pubis Ischium The pubis is the anterior and inferior part of the pubic bone and consists of a body connected to two branches (rami) – a superior ramus and an inferior ramus. Several muscles of the abdomen and thigh attach to the superior pubic ramus. The superior pubic ramus projects posteriorly and laterally from the body and joins the ilium and ischium. The superior pubic ramus consists of two parts: a medial part (the body of the pubis) and a lateral …

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Superior Pubic Ramus