Bones

Spinous Process of Vertebra

Spinous Process of Vertebra The structure indicated is the spinous process of the vertebra. The typical vertebra consists of the following features: Vertebral body Vertebral arch (neural arch) consisting of lamina and pedicle Spinous process Transverse process Vertebral foramen (collectively form vertebral canal) Superior and inferior articular processes Superior and inferior vertebral notches The vertebral arch extends posteriorly from the vertebral body, comprised of two pedicles which extend from the posterolateral aspects of the vertebral body to join the two laminae on either side which complete the vertebral arch and enclose the vertebral foramen. Projecting posteriorly in the midline from …

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spinous process

Pedicle

Pedicle The structure indicated is the pedicle of the vertebra. The typical vertebra consists of the following features: Vertebral body Vertebral arch (neural arch) consisting of lamina and pedicle Spinous process Transverse process Vertebral foramen (collectively form vertebral canal) Superior and inferior articular processes Superior and inferior vertebral notches The vertebral arch is formed from two pedicles and two laminae. The pedicles attach on either side to the posterolateral aspects of the vertebral body and unite posteriorly with the laminae which complete the vertebral arch. Learn more about the anatomy of the vertebrae in this tutorial.

pedicle

Transverse Process of Vertebra

Transverse Process of Vertebra The structure indicated is the transverse process of the vertebra. The typical vertebra consists of the following features: Vertebral body Vertebral arch (neural arch) consisting of lamina and pedicle Spinous process Transverse process Vertebral foramen (collectively form vertebral canal) Superior and inferior articular processes Superior and inferior vertebral notches The transverse processes of the vertebrae extend from the vertebral arch at the point where the pedicles meet the lamina, and lie in between the superior and inferior articular processes. A facet on the transverse processes of the thoracic vertebrae serves as the point of articulation for …

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transverse process

Vertebral Foramen

Vertebral Foramen The structure indicated is the vertebral foramen. There are 33 vertebrae which make up the spinal column: 7 cervical 12 thoracic 5 lumbar 5 fused sacral vertebrae 3-4 fused coccygeal vertebrae The typical vertebra consists of the following features: Vertebral body Vertebral arch (neural arch) consisting of lamina and pedicle Spinous process Transverse process Vertebral foramen (collectively form vertebral canal) Superior and inferior articular processes Superior and inferior vertebral notches The spinal cord passes through the vertebral foramina of the vertebrae: the collective vertebral foramina are referred to as the vertebral canal, or spinal canal. The anterior part …

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vertebral foramen

Lesser Sciatic Notch

Lesser Sciatic Notch The structure indicated is the lesser sciatic notch. The lesser sciatic notch lies below the ischial spine, and is converted into the lesser sciatic foramen by the sacrospinous and sacrotuberous ligaments. The greater sciatic notch lies between the ischial spine (inferiorly) and the posterior inferior iliac spine (superiorly). The sacrospinous ligament which attaches from the ischial spine to the lateral aspect of the sacrum and coccyx converts the greater sciatic notch into the greater sciatic foramen. The following structures pass through the lesser sciatic foramen: Tendon of obturator internus Nerve to obturator internus Internal pudendal vessels Pudendal …

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lesser sciatic notch

Vertebral Body

Vertebral Body The structure indicated is the vertebral body. There are 33 vertebrae which make up the spinal column: 7 cervical 12 thoracic 5 lumbar 5 fused sacral vertebrae 3-4 fused coccygeal vertebrae The typical vertebra consists of the following features: Vertebral body Vertebral arch (neural arch) consisting of lamina and pedicle Spinous process Transverse process Vertebral foramen (collectively form vertebral canal) Superior and inferior articular processes Superior and inferior vertebral notches The vertebral body is the largest component of the vertebra. Between adjacent vertebrae within the spinal cord, the vertebral bodies are joined by intervertebral discs which form fibrocartilaginous …

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vertebral body

Superior Articular Process

Superior Articular Process The structure indicated is the superior articular process. There are 33 vertebrae which make up the spinal column: 7 cervical 12 thoracic 5 lumbar 5 fused sacral vertebrae 3-4 fused coccygeal vertebrae The typical vertebra consists of the following features: Vertebral body Vertebral arch (neural arch) consisting of lamina and pedicle Spinous process Transverse process Vertebral foramen (collectively form vertebral canal) Superior and inferior articular processes Superior and inferior vertebral notches The superior articular process articulates with the inferior articular process of the vertebrae above. These articulations are known as zyapophysial joints. The articular processes arise from …

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superior articular process

Transverse Foramen

Transverse Foramen The structure indicated is the transverse foramen of a cervical vertebra. There are 33 vertebrae which make up the spinal column: 7 cervical 12 thoracic 5 lumbar 5 fused sacral vertebrae 3-4 fused coccygeal vertebrae The typical vertebra consists of the following features: Vertebral body Vertebral arch (neural arch) consisting of lamina and pedicle Spinous process Transverse process Vertebral foramen (collectively form vertebral canal) Superior and inferior articular processes Superior and inferior vertebral notches Transverse foramina are only present in the cervical vertebrae. These foramina allow the passage of the vertebral artery and vein. The vertebral arteries arise …

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transverse foramen

Acromioclavicular Joint

Acromioclavicular Joint The structure indicated is the acromioclavicular joint. The shoulder joint complex consists of the three joints: Glenohumeral joint Acromioclavicular joint Sternoclavicular joint The acromioclavicular joint is formed between the acromion of the scapula and the clavicle. It is a small synovial joint that is stabilised by the following ligaments: Acromioclavicular ligament (consists of superior and inferior parts) Coracoclavicular ligaments The coracoclavicular ligaments consist of two parts: Trapezoid ligament Conoid ligament Learn more about the shoulder joint in this anatomy tutorial.

acromioclavicular joint

Foramen Spinosum

Foramen Spinosum The structure indicated is the foramen spinosum. The floor of the cranial cavity consists of three cranial fossae: Anterior cranial fossa Middle cranial fossa Posterior cranial fossa There are several holes in the floor of the cranial cavity which allow structures to enter and exit the skull, known as foramen. Foramen (foramina is plural), are holes in the human body which allow other structures to pass through. In the case of the skull, foramina permit the passage of arteries, veins and nerves. The middle cranial fossa consists of the following foramina: Superior orbital fissure Foramen rotundum Foramen ovale …

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