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Lamina

Lamina The structure indicated is the lamina of the vertebra. The typical vertebra consists of the following features: Vertebral body Vertebral arch (neural arch) consisting of lamina and pedicle Spinous process Transverse process Vertebral foramen (collectively form vertebral canal) Superior and inferior articular processes Superior and inferior vertebral notches The vertebral arch is formed from two pedicles and two laminae. The pedicles attach on either side to the posterolateral aspects of the vertebral body and unite posteriorly with the laminae which complete the vertebral arch. The laminae provide attachment for the ligamentum flavum, which connect adjacent laminae along the length …

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lamina

Spinous Process of Vertebra

Spinous Process of Vertebra The structure indicated is the spinous process of the vertebra. The typical vertebra consists of the following features: Vertebral body Vertebral arch (neural arch) consisting of lamina and pedicle Spinous process Transverse process Vertebral foramen (collectively form vertebral canal) Superior and inferior articular processes Superior and inferior vertebral notches The vertebral arch extends posteriorly from the vertebral body, comprised of two pedicles which extend from the posterolateral aspects of the vertebral body to join the two laminae on either side which complete the vertebral arch and enclose the vertebral foramen. Projecting posteriorly in the midline from …

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spinous process

Pedicle

Pedicle The structure indicated is the pedicle of the vertebra. The typical vertebra consists of the following features: Vertebral body Vertebral arch (neural arch) consisting of lamina and pedicle Spinous process Transverse process Vertebral foramen (collectively form vertebral canal) Superior and inferior articular processes Superior and inferior vertebral notches The vertebral arch is formed from two pedicles and two laminae. The pedicles attach on either side to the posterolateral aspects of the vertebral body and unite posteriorly with the laminae which complete the vertebral arch. Learn more about the anatomy of the vertebrae in this tutorial.
pedicle

Levator Scapulae

Levator Scapulae The structure indicated is the levator scapulae muscle. The levator scapulae muscle is one of the superficial muscles of the back. There are three groups of back mucsles: Superficial Intermediate Deep The superficial group of back muscles consists of 5 muscles: Trapezius Latissimus dorsi Levator scapulae Rhomboid major Rhomboid minor The name “levator scapulae”, is the Latin for “elevator of the scapula”, which describes the function of this muscle. Origin: Transverse processes of cervical vertebrae CI to C4 Insertion: Upper aspect of medial border of scapula Action: Elevates scapula Innervation: Dorsal scapula nerve Learn more about the anatomy …

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levator scapulae

Transverse Process of Vertebra

Transverse Process of Vertebra The structure indicated is the transverse process of the vertebra. The typical vertebra consists of the following features: Vertebral body Vertebral arch (neural arch) consisting of lamina and pedicle Spinous process Transverse process Vertebral foramen (collectively form vertebral canal) Superior and inferior articular processes Superior and inferior vertebral notches The transverse processes of the vertebrae extend from the vertebral arch at the point where the pedicles meet the lamina, and lie in between the superior and inferior articular processes. A facet on the transverse processes of the thoracic vertebrae serves as the point of articulation for …

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transverse process

Vertebral Foramen

Vertebral Foramen The structure indicated is the vertebral foramen. There are 33 vertebrae which make up the spinal column: 7 cervical 12 thoracic 5 lumbar 5 fused sacral vertebrae 3-4 fused coccygeal vertebrae The typical vertebra consists of the following features: Vertebral body Vertebral arch (neural arch) consisting of lamina and pedicle Spinous process Transverse process Vertebral foramen (collectively form vertebral canal) Superior and inferior articular processes Superior and inferior vertebral notches The spinal cord passes through the vertebral foramina of the vertebrae: the collective vertebral foramina are referred to as the vertebral canal, or spinal canal. The anterior part …

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vertebral foramen

Vertebral Body

Vertebral Body The structure indicated is the vertebral body. There are 33 vertebrae which make up the spinal column: 7 cervical 12 thoracic 5 lumbar 5 fused sacral vertebrae 3-4 fused coccygeal vertebrae The typical vertebra consists of the following features: Vertebral body Vertebral arch (neural arch) consisting of lamina and pedicle Spinous process Transverse process Vertebral foramen (collectively form vertebral canal) Superior and inferior articular processes Superior and inferior vertebral notches The vertebral body is the largest component of the vertebra. Between adjacent vertebrae within the spinal cord, the vertebral bodies are joined by intervertebral discs which form fibrocartilaginous …

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vertebral body

Latissimus Dorsi

Latissimus Dorsi The structure indicated is the latissimus dorsi muscle. The latissimus dorsi muscle is one of the superficial muscles of the back. There are three groups of back mucsles: Superficial Intermediate Deep The superficial group of back muscles consists of 5 muscles: Trapezius Latissimus dorsi Levator scapulae Rhomboid major Rhomboid minor “Latissimus dorsi” translates literally from the Latin has the “broadest muscle of the back”, which reflects its large, flat structure. The latissimus dorsi muscle is involved in several movements of the upper limbs as well as movement at the lumbar spine and it also plays a role as …

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latissimus dorsi

Rectus Capitis Posterior Minor

Rectus Capitis Posterior Minor The structure indicated is the rectus capitis posterior minor muscle. The rectus capitis posterior minor is one of 4 muscles which make up the suboccipital group of back muscles. This group of small muscles are located at the base of the occipital bone in the superior cervical region posteriorly. The four suboccipital muscles are: Rectus capitis posterior major Rectus capitis posterior minor Obliquus capitis inferior Obliquus capitis superior Origin:  spinous process of atlas vertebrae CI Insertion: occipital bone inferior to nuchal line Innervation: posterior ramus of CI Action: Extension of head   Learn more about the …

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Rectus Capitis Posterior Minor

Interspinales

Interspinales The structure indicated is the interspinales muscle. The interspinales muscles belong to the deep group of back muscles. The muscles of the back can be considered in terms of a superficial group, an intermediate group and a deep group of muscles. The deep group of back muscles consists of: Spinotransversales muscles Erector spinae muscles and transversospinales muscles Segmental muscles Suboccipital muscles The interspinales muscles belong to the segmental muscle group of the deep muscles. As the name suggests, the interspinales run between adjacent spinous processes. There is one interspinales muscle on either side, lateral to the interspinous ligament. The …

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interspinales