System: Cardiovascular

Internal Iliac Artery

Internal Iliac Artery The structure indicated is the internal iliac artery. The abdominal aorta bifurcates into the left and right common iliac arteries at approximately the level of the fourth lumbar vertebra. The common iliac arteries then divide into the external and internal iliac arteries. The internal iliac artery has an anterior trunk and posterior trunk. The branches of these trunks are anatomically variable and have several different configurations from person to person. The posterior trunk gives rise to three branches: Iliolumbar artery Lateral sacral arteries Superior gluteal artery The branches of the anterior trunk are much more variable, but …

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Internal iliac artery

Purkinje Fibres

Purkinje Fibres The diagram indicates purkinje fibres. The conduction system of the heart is responsible for the synchronised contraction of the atria and ventricles and is comprised of the following main structures: Sinoatrial node Atrioventricular node Atrioventricular bundle of His Right and left bundle branches Purkinje fibres The atrioventricular nodes receives signals from the sinoatrial node. The impulses from the atrioventricular node then pass to the Bundle of His and then follow the left and right bundle branches through the interventricular septum and ultimately to the Purkinje fibres which propagate the signal into the ventricles. Purkinje fibres are located on …

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purkinje fibres

Lumbar Veins

Lumbar Veins The lumbar veins are illustrated in this diagram. The lumbar veins run along the posterior abdominal wall and drain into the inferior vena cava. In addition some lumbar veins drain into the iliolumbar vein, and into ascending lumbar veins. There are several veins which drain into the inferior vena cava. The inferior cava is formed from the union of the common iliac veins, which receive blood from the pelvis and lower limbs. Draining directly into the inferior vena cava, are the following veins: Lumbar veins Right gonadal veins (ovarian/testicular) Renal veins Right suprarenal vein Inferior phrenic veins Hepatic …

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Lumbar veins

Lower Limb Veins

Learn all about the anatomy of the veins of the lower limb in this tutorial.

Lower Limb Veins Overview

Renal Artery

Renal Artery The structure indicated is the right renal artery. The renal arteries are lateral branches of the abdominal aorta which arise at the level of the intervertebral disc between L1 and L2, just below the origin of the superior mesenteric arteries. There is one renal artery that supplies each kidney. The right renal artery tends to originate slightly lower than the left renal artery, and it passes behind the inferior vena cava to supply the right kidney. The renal arteries then divide into a few anterior and posterior branches at the hilum. The renal arteries can become narrowed, or …

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Right renal artery

Median Sacral Artery

Median Sacral Artery The structure indicated is the median sacral artery. The median sacral artery arises just above the bifurcation of the aorta into the common iliac arteries. The abdominal aorta gives off anterior, posterior and lateral branches. The anterior branches include: Celiac trunk Superior mesenteric artery Gonadal arteries Inferior mesenteric arteries Lateral branches: Middle suprarenal arteries Renal arteries Posterior branches: Inferior phrenic arteries Lumbar arteries Median sacral arteries The median sacral artery supplies the coccyx, the lumbar vertebrae and the sacrum.

medial sacral artery

Right Coronary Artery

Right Coronary Artery The structure indicated is the right coronary artery of the heart. The coronary arteries arise from the aortic sinuses of the ascending aorta. The right coronary artery (RCA) arises from the right aortic sinus and the left coronary from the left aortic sinus. The right coronary artery then runs in the coronary sulcus, which separates the atria from the ventricles. The right coronary artery gives off the following branches: Atrial arteries Right marginal branch Posterior interventricular branch (posterior descending artery) The coronary artery from which the posterior descending artery arises determines the coronary dominance. The posterior descending artery …

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right coronary artery

Vertebral Artery

Vertebral Artery The structure indicated is the vertebral artery. The vertebral arteries arise from the first part of the subclavian artery. Two other arteries are given off from the first part of the subclavian artery – the internal thoracic artery and the thyrocervical trunk. The vertebral and internal carotid arteries provide the arterial supply to the brain, forming the Circle of Willis at the base of the brain. After the vertebral artery is given off from the subclavian artery, it passes through the transverse foramina of cervical vertebrae C1 to C6. It then enters the skull via the foramen magnum. …

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vertebral artery

Splenic Artery

Splenic Artery The structure indicated is the splenic artery. The splenic artery is one of three branches of the celiac trunk, which is the first anterior branch that arises from the abdominal aorta. The abdominal aorta consists of anterior, posterior, and lateral branches. There are three anterior branches which supply the foregut, midgut and hindgut structures these are as follows: Celiac trunk – supplies foregut Superior mesenteric artery – supplies midgut Inferior mesenteric artery – supplies hindgut The celiac trunk arises from the abdominal aorta at the level of the upper part of the first lumbar vertebra. It gives rises …

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splenic artery