Vascular Supply Anatomy Tutorials

System: Cardiovascular

Angiogenesis

Illustration of the progression of angiogenesis. Angiogenesis is the physiological process of new blood vessel growth from PRE-EXISTING vessels. This is a different process from that of NEW blood vessel growth, which is called vasculogenesis. Angiogenesis is a fascinating process that is involved in both normal physiology (wound healing and formation of granulation tissue) and also in the pathological process of tumour transformation. Tumours require a rich blood supply in order to grow and continue rapidly dividing. To enable further growth angiogenesis is critical, and is therefore a key step in the transformation of a benign tumour into a malignant one. For this reason, inhibition of angiogenesis is a key target of anti-tumour cancer therapies. Illustration credit: Dr Jon Heras
Angiogenesis

Inferior Sagittal Sinus

Inferior Sagittal Sinus The structure indicated is the inferior sagittal sinus. The brain is drained by a series of veins and venous channels which drain into large dural venous sinuses, which in turn ultimately drain to the internal jugular veins. The dural venous sinuses are lined by endothelium and located between the layers of the dura mater in the brain. The venous sinuses are different to other blood vessels as they do not have the same set of layers which form their walls, and do not contain valves, like veins. In addition to the venous sinuses, there are deep veins …

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inferior sagittal sinus

Internal Carotid Artery

Internal Carotid Artery The structure indicated is the internal carotid artery. The internal carotid arteries arise from the common carotid arteries. The brachiocephalic artery arises from the arch of the aorta and divides into the right subclavian artery and the right common carotid artery. There is no left brachiocephalic artery however, and the left common carotid arises directly from the aortic arch. There are three branches which come off the aortic arch: Brachiocephalic artery Left common carotid Left subclavian The common carotid arteries then divide into the external carotid and internal carotid arteries. The internal carotid artery ascends to supply the …

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internal carotid artery

Internal Thoracic Artery

Internal Thoracic Artery The structure indicated is the internal thoracic artery. The internal thoracic artery was formerly known as the internal mammary artery and is an artery located anteriorly in the thorax. It is a branch of the subclavian artery. The left subclavian artery comes directly off the arch of the aorta, whereas on the right side of the body, the brachiocephalic artery splits, giving rise to the right subclavian artery, and the right common carotid artery. The subclavian artery becomes the axillary artery at the lateral border of the first rib. It can be thought of in three parts, …

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internal thoracic artery

Median Antebrachial Vein

Median Antebrachial Vein The structure indicated is the median antebrachial vein. The median antebrachial vein is one of the veins of the superficial venous system of the upper limb. The veins of the upper limb consist of a superficial veins and deep veins. The superficial system consists primarily of the cephalic and basilic veins which originate from the dorsal venous arch and drain into the axillary vein and brachial veins respectively. In the region of the antecubital fossa, the cephalic vein is joined to the basilic vein via a vein known as the median cubital vein. The median antebrachial vein originates …

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median antebrachial vein

Left Coronary Artery

Left Coronary Artery The structure indicated is the left coronary artery. The left coronary artery (LCA) arises from the left aortic sinus of the ascending aorta. The left coronary artery has two terminal branches: Left anterior descending (LAD)/anterior interventricular Circumflex branch The left circumflex artery (LCX) supplies blood to the posterolateral left ventricle as well as the anterolateral papillary muscle and provides part of the supply to the left ventricle. The left anterior descending artery also supplies the left ventricle, and is responsible for the arterial supply to the anterolateral myocardium, the apex of the heart and the interventricular septum. …

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left coronary artery

Radial Vein

Radial Vein The structure indicated is the radial vein of the forearm. The venous drainage of the upper limb consists of a superficial system and a deep system. The superficial system drains to the deep system. The veins of the deep system accompany the arteries, and are known as venae comitantes which is the Latin for “accompanying veins” (vena comitans = singular). The veins which accompany the arteries are often in pairs, and are therefore frequently referred to in the plural form – venae comitantes. The radial veins are paired veins which accompany the radial artery in the forearm. The …

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radial vein