Structure: Other

Foramen Spinosum

Foramen Spinosum The structure indicated is the foramen spinosum. The floor of the cranial cavity consists of three cranial fossae: Anterior cranial fossa Middle cranial fossa Posterior cranial fossa There are several holes in the floor of the cranial cavity which allow structures to enter and exit the skull, known as foramen. Foramen (foramina is plural), are holes in the human body which allow other structures to pass through. In the case of the skull, foramina permit the passage of arteries, veins and nerves. The middle cranial fossa consists of the following foramina: Superior orbital fissure Foramen rotundum Foramen ovale …

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Superior Extensor Retinaculum

Superior Extensor Retinaculum The structure indicated is the superior extensor retinaculum of the leg. Retinacula (retinaculum singular) are bands of connective tissue which surround tendons and hold them in place. They function to stabilise tendons as the muscles to which they attach contract to cause movement. There are retinacula in the wrist, ankle and knee. In the ankle, there is the flexor retinaculum, the peroneal retinacula and on the extensor surface, there is the superior and inferior extensor retinacula. The superior retinaculum is situated distally in the leg just above the ankle joint, attaching to the anterior aspects of the …

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superior extensor retinaculum

Calcaneal (Achilles) Tendon

Calcaneal (Achilles) Tendon The structure indicated is the calcaneal tendon (Achilles’ tendon). The calcaneal tendon is formed from the convergence of the three muscles of the superficial compartment of the posterior leg to form a tendon that inserts onto the calcaneus. The posterior compartment of the leg consists of a superficial group of muscles and a deep group of muscles. The superficial group consists of the following leg muscles: Gastrocnemius Plantaris Soleus The deep group consists of the following leg muscles: Popliteus Flexor hallucis longus Flexor digitorum longus Tibialis posterior The calcaneal tendon is the thickest tendon in the human …

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calcaneal (achilles) tendon

Purkinje Fibres

Purkinje Fibres The diagram indicates purkinje fibres. The conduction system of the heart is responsible for the synchronised contraction of the atria and ventricles and is comprised of the following main structures: Sinoatrial node Atrioventricular node Atrioventricular bundle of His Right and left bundle branches Purkinje fibres The atrioventricular nodes receives signals from the sinoatrial node. The impulses from the atrioventricular node then pass to the Bundle of His and then follow the left and right bundle branches through the interventricular septum and ultimately to the Purkinje fibres which propagate the signal into the ventricles. Purkinje fibres are located on …

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purkinje fibres

Inferior Extensor Retinaculum

Inferior Extensor Retinaculum The structure indicated is the inferior extensor retinaculum. Retinacula (retinaculum singular) are bands of connective tissue which surround tendons and hold them in place. They function to stabilise tendons as the muscles to which they attach contract to cause movement. There are retinacula in the wrist, ankle and knee. In the ankle, there is the flexor retinaculum, the peroneal retinacula and on the extensor surface, there is the superior and inferior extensor retinacula. The superior retinaculum is situated distally in the leg just above the ankle joint, attaching to the anterior aspects of the fibula and tibia. …

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Inferior extensor retinaculum

Tricuspid Valve

Tricuspid Valve The structure indicated is the tricuspid valve of the heart. There are four sets of valves in the heart. Between the atria and the ventricles are the atrioventricular valves; on the right is the tricuspid valve, on the left is the mitral (bicuspid) valve. Between the ventricles and the aorta/pulmonary trunk are the semilunar valves. The pulmonary valve is located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary trunk, and the aortic valve is located between the left ventricle and the aorta. The atrioventricular valves are controlled by papillary muscles, which are specialised structures in the ventricles that attach …

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Tricuspid Valve

Infraorbital Foramen

Infraorbital Foramen The structure indicated is the infraorbital foramen of the skull. The infraorbital foramen are a pair of external foramina of the skull which are visible anteriorly on the skull. Foramen (foramina is plural), are holes in the human body which allow other structures to pass through. In the case of the skull, foramina permit the passage of arteries, veins and nerves. There are three pairs of foramina visible from an anterior view of the skull: Infraorbital foramen Supraorbital foramen Mental foramen The infraorbital foramen is located in the maxillary bone of the skull just below the inferior margin …

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Infraorbital Foramen

Submandibular Gland

Submandibular Gland The structure indicated is the submandibular gland. There are three main large sets of salivary glands in the face: Parotid glands Submandibular glands Sublingual glands The submandibular glands are hook shaped and consist of a deep part and a superficial part, separated by the mylohyoid muscle. The deep part of the submandibular gland is formed from the shorter arm of the hook, which loops posteriorly around the mylohyoid muscle to enter the floor of the oral cavity. The superficial part of the submandibular gland is formed from the longer arm of the hook and lies outside the oral …

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Submandibular Gland

Soft Palate

Soft Palate The structure indicated is the soft palate. The hard and soft palates form the roof of the oral cavity. The oral cavity opens anteriorly on the face via the oral fissure. Posteriorly the oral cavity opens into the oropharynx via oropharyngeal isthmus. The floor is formed mainly of the tongue and surrounding soft tissue. Laterally, the oral cavity is bounded by the muscular cheeks. The hard palate forms the anterior portion of the roof of the oral cavity and consists of a plate of bone (from the maxilla and palatine bones) covered in mucosa. Posteriorly, the soft palate …

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Soft Palate

Fungiform Papilla

Fungiform Papilla The structure indicated represents a fungiform papillae, one of the four types of lingual papillae found on the surface of the tongue. There are four types of lingual papillae found on the tongue: Circumvallate papillae (top right) Fungiform papillae (bottom left) Filiform papillae (bottom middle) Foliate papillae (bottom right) The only papillae not associated with taste buds are the filiform papillae. Fungiform papillae are mushroom shaped and contain taste buds on their upper surface allowing distinction of all five modalities of taste: Bitter Sweet Sour Salty Umami

Fungiform Papilla