The gluteus maximus is the largest muscle in the gluteal region.
The gluteal region consists of two groups of muscles:
- Deep group: small muscles which mainly laterally rotate the femur at the hip joint. These include the piriformis, obturator internus, gemellus superior, gemellus inferior, and quadratus femoris.
- Superficial group: larger muscles which cause abduction and extension of the femur at the hip joint. These include the gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, gluteus minimis and the tensor fascia latae.
- Posterior surface of ilium
- Posterior superior illiac crest
- Posterior surface of sacrum and coccyx
- Primarily to fascia lata at illiotibial tract
- Upper posterior surface of femur
- Hip extension
- Hip lateral rotation
- Hip abduction (middle and upper fibres)
- Quadratus femoris branch of nerve to the Quadratus femoris and inferior gemellus: L5, S1
- Inferior and superior gluteal arteries
- First perforating branch of profunda femoral artery