Articles

Occipital Lobe

Occipital Lobe The occipital lobe is highlighted in purple. There are four main lobes of the brain: frontal parietal temporal occipital The occipital lobe is responsible for processing visual information, and is often referred to as the visual cortex. It is the smallest of the four lobes and is located posteriorly in the cranial cavity, underneath the occipital bone. Learn more about the anatomy of the brain in this video.
Occipital lobe highlighted in purple

Septal Papillary Muscle

Septal Papillary Muscle The papillary muscles are specialised structures in the ventricles which attach to the atrioventricular valves (tricuspid and mitral) via string-like extensions known as chordeae tendineae. They contract to prevent the atrioventricular valves from inverting and allowing blood to flow backwards into the atria. In the ventricles there are muscular ridges known as trabeculae carneae. Papillary muscles are specialised trabeculae carneae which are attached at one end to the ventricle wall, and at the other to the chordae tendineae. There are three papillary muscles in the right ventricle: anterior posterior septal These attach to the tricuspid valve. There …

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Septal papillary muscle highlighted in orange.

Vastus Medialis

Vastus Medialis The vastus medialis is one of the muscles that makes up the quadriceps femoris, and is contained in the anterior compartment of the thigh. It is responsible for the tear-drop shape that is visible on the medial aspect of the thigh in trained athletes and footballers. The four muscles that make up the quadriceps femoris are the: –         Rectus femoris –         Vastus lateralis –         Vastus medialis –         Vastus intermedius   Learn more about the muscles of the anterior compartment in this tutorial. Click here to visualise and interact with these muscles.
Vastus Medialis

Arrector Pili

Arrector Pili The arrector pili muscles are small smooth muscles which attach to hair follicles. When these muscles contract, they make your hair stand on end – a phenomenon which may better known to you as “goosebumps”. These muscles are not under conscious control, but are innervated by the sympathetic component of the autonomic nervous system. Find out more about the autonomic nervous system in this tutorial.
Arrector Pili

Anterior Talofibular Ligament

Anterior Talofibular Ligament The ankle joint has medial and lateral ligaments which help to keep it stable. As the “fibular” part of the name suggests, the anterior talofibular ligament is one of the lateral ligaments. There are three ligaments in this lateral ligament complex: anterior talofibular ligament posterior talofibular ligament calcaneofibular ligament. This ligament is the most commonly injured ligament in a sprained ankle. Since the ligament stabilises the lateral side of the ankle, you can image from seeing its position, if the ankle is forced into inversion, this ligament will come under a lot of strain leading to a …

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Anterior Talofibular Ligament

Malleus

Malleus The ossicles of the ear are tiny little bones that are located in the middle ear. They are the smallest bone in the human body (the word itself actually means “little bone”) and their purpose is to transmit sound vibrations from the eardrum (tympanic membrane), to the complex inner ear structures, ultimately leading to the perception of sound. There are a series of three ossicles in the ear: malleus incus stapes. The malleus is attached to the tympanic membrane and articulates with the incus, which in turn articulates with the stapes. The stapes, attaches to the membrane of the …

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Malleus

Middle Lobe of Right Lung

Middle Lobe of Right Lung The right lung consists of three lobes: superior lobe inferior lobe middle lobe. These lobes are separated by two fissures, known as the oblique fissure and the horizontal fissure. The oblique fissure separates the middle and inferior lobes, whereas the horizontal fissure separates the superior and middle lobes. Pictured here is the middle lobe of the right lung. The left lung, on the other hand only has two lobes separated by one fissure. The superior lobe is separated from the inferior lobe by the oblique fissure. Learn more about the respiratory system in this tutorial.
Middle lobe of right lung